Ashoknagar is located in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh between the Sindh and the Betwa rivers. It comes under the northern part of the Malwa plateau, though the main part of its District lies in the Bundelkhand Plateau. Geographically, the District is situated between the latitude 24.34 N and longitude 77.43 E. The eastern and western boundaries of the District are well-defined by the rivers. The Betwa flows along the eastern boundary separating it from Sagar District and Lalitpur District of Uttar Pradesh. The Sindh is the main river flowing along the western boundary. Ashoknagar was formerly known as Pachhar. Ashoknagar is well known for its Grain Mandi and “Sharbati Gaihu”, a type of wheat. Ashoknagar District in Madhya Pradesh was a part of Guna District till 2003. On August 15, 2003, Ashoknagar was declared a separate District on the basis of Guna district being bigger than the administrative area.

The District consists of eight tehsils named Ashoknagar, Chanderi, Isagarh, Mungaoli, Shadora, Piprai, Nai Sarai, and Bahadurpur. Ashoknagar District is surrounded by the Shivpuri, Guna, Vidisha, and Sagar Districts of Madhya Pradesh and touches the Uttar Pradesh Boundary. Ashoknagar is approximately 200 km away from the capital of the state Bhopal. Ashoknagar is situated in the Heart of India. Ashoknagar is situated at an average elevation of 507 meters (1640 ft) above sea level. It is in the plateau region. It has an agricultural topography. The plateau is an extension of the Deccan Traps, formed between 60 and 68 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period. In this region, the main classes of soil are black, brown, and bhatori (stony) soil.

The volcanic, clay-like soil of the region owes its black color to the high iron content of the basalt from which it is formed. The soil requires less irrigation because of its high capacity for moisture retention. The other two soil types are lighter and have a higher proportion of sand. The year is popularly divided into three seasons: summer, rain, and winter. Summer extends over the months from mid-March to May. The average daily temperature during the summer months is 35°C, which typically rises to around 46 °C on few days. The rainy season starts with the first showers in mid-June and extends to the middle of September. Most of the rain falls during the southwest monsoon spell and ranges from about 100 cm in the west to about 165 cm in the east. Ashoknagar and surrounding areas receive an average of 140 cm of rainfall a year. Winter is the longest of the three seasons, extending for about five months which starts from October and extends to mid-March. The climate of Ashoknagar is subtropical. In summers, the temperature reaches to 47°C and drops to 4°C in the winters and rainfall is adequate and sometimes less.